To meet the 8 million tonnes of iron ore annual requirement of Ajaokuta and Delta Steel Plants (when fully operational) and being one of the primary inputs in the Steel making process, this department which is manned by 20 geoscientists is saddled with the task of exploring and evaluating all the iron ore occurrences in Nigeria and possibly beyond. Attention is focused on the Precambrian banded (metasedimentary) iron ores formation and the Cretaceous Sedimentary Oolitic/pisolitic iron ores.

Apart from iron ores, the department is also carrying out prospecting and exploration for ferroalloy materials including chromite, manganese, wolframite (Tungsten), molybdenum, tantalite, rutile/ilmenite (Titanium) among others

Recent explorations in Itakpe, Kogi State; Gidan Jaja, Zamfara State; Gyaza, Katsina State; Kateri,Kaduna State; Agbaja, Kotonkarfi.